Superconductor at 93,5 degrees Celsius
The economy based on new knowledge, will create a basis of industrial revolution in XXI century. The penetration into a secret of "hot" superconductivity will allow to put in pawn one of stones in the base of this revolution.
have made the first successful step in this direction. We patent superconductive
devices working at temperatures up to 93.50 Ñ - "HOT SUPERCONDUCTORS".
Use of hot superconductors provides to solve a problem of creation and
commercial application for information and power technologies of:
Now, the theory of condensed matter does not allow calculating parameters and characteristics of compounds of any given structure and structures. This theory has not allowed adequately to describe major experimental discoverings of the XX century - low-temperature and high-temperature superconductivity and to predict room superconductivity [Conf.: "Major Trends in Superconductivity in New Millennium", 31m.-6apr. Klostering, Switzerland (2000)]. It is connected with that conceptions of the electron as an unstructured wave of probability or as a mathematical point are used now.
To understand the mechanism of movement of electrons in a condensed substance we have developed new model of an electron. Our model is based on taking into account the spatial structure of an electron, its field and features of its movement in the condensed matter depending on external electromagnetic fields and temperature.
As a result of our studies we have found, that in some inorganic materials and polymers under the certain external conditions an unusual movement of an electronic wave as a ring by a diameter 14.5 nm, rotating with speed, in 137 squared times of smaller speed of light is possible. In our model this electronic ring is a two-dimensional object moving in three-dimensional space of a condensed substance. The cross-section of interaction of such ring with substance decreases as resonance in 137 times.
Our model simply explains a mysterious breakage of a tunnel current after excess of a vacuum interval more than 7.25 nm, and surprising lag - "levitation" of electrons above a surface of liquid or solid noble gas at height about 7.25 nm.
On the basis of the developed model of an electron taking into account its electromagnetic mass we have found the essentially new theoretical and experimental decisions for creation of quantum nano-dimensional devices. The working temperatures of these devices exceed in 137 times ones of Helium for modern nanotransistors, etc. In result, our devices can work at room temperatures and above it.
On the basis of new model we have developed a set of quantum-dimensional devices. In these devices three various mechanisms of movement of electrons and their groups are used. At first, the mechanism of movement of individual electrons through the resonator as nano-dimensional cluster, having the form either nanosphere, or nanotube with the characteristic sizes of 14.5 nm. In such resonator an electron is wrapping in a ring. At second, the mechanism of collective movement of ring electrons with the parallel spins in materials with phase transition the metal - semiconductor. The working temperatures of devices from such materials can reach 600Ê (327 Ñ). At third, the mechanism of collective movement of coupled electrons with the anti-parallel spins through nano-dimensional clusters and wires from superconductive material.
IIn controversy to the standard Cooper phonon mechanism the coupling electrons in our model is considered as coupling of two ring electrons for which the cross-section of interaction with ions of a lattice considerably decreases because of a change of spatial structure of electron. Knowing the mechanism of coupling of ring electrons one may to formulate the requirements to high-temperature superconductive materials. It has been appeared, that is possible to create the large new class of high-temperature ceramic and polymeric superconductors working at room and higher temperatures down to 366.6Ê (93.5 Ñ) on a basis already of existing technologies and materials.
Spherical nano-dimensional multi-layer clusters by the size about 30 nm play a role of transistors. They allow a three-dimensional connection with direct contacts between themselves. Such contact carries out functions of managing or having electrodes. In result, such design allows to change the current planar technology to volumetric three-dimensional one and to increase density of packing, and, hence, speed and productivity of the integrated circuits. It will allow creating parallel matrix computing structures with the large degree of a branching that is very important at the decision of a problem of creation of neuro-computers. Certainly, use of the room superconductors will reduce consumption of energy and will increase the speed of the integrated circuits. It will allow reviving non-realized idea of firm IBM about creation of computers on superconductors at the new level.
The certain practical successes in this area today are achieved. For example, the firm "Room Temperature Superconductors Inc." Already receives the room superconductivity in polymers, which they have named "ultraconductors" (US Patent 5777292). However this effect is observed while only in micrometer areas. Except for them, the set of research groups searches quickly for an opportunity of creation of the room superconductivity in carbon nanotubes and others anisotropic spatial structures. The absence for today of the adequate theory brakes a development in this field. It results to disproportionately high material expenses on search of an empirical way of the problem solution. However, practical achievements in creation of ultraconductors already allow really speaking about creation of a neurocomputer on our technology.
Now we have finished
the first stage of our researches and have begun the international patenting
and publication of our results.
ILYANOK A.M. -
applicant and inventor
Basing on the patent application ÐÑÒ BY 98/00012 "QUANTUM-SIZE ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND METHODS OF OPERATING THEREOF" (80 claims) we have filed the enhanced patent application ÐÑÒ BY 99/00012 "QUANTUM-SIZE ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND OPERATING CONDITIONS THEREOF" (102 claims) (International Publication Number: WO 00/41247, 13.07.2000). In 2001 the application entered its Eurasian Regional Phase (EA), European Regional Phase (EP) in all European states and its National Phases in the USA (US), South Korea (KR), China (CN).
The application EA/200100735/27 titled "Quantusized electronic devices and operating conditions thereof" (70 climes) based on the patent application ÐÑÒ BY 99/00012, was examined in the Eurasian Patent Office under the accelerated procedure and was issued a Notification on readiness to grant a Eurasian patent for the full scope of 70 claims.
Our patent is the second one acting in the world after the patent US
Patent 5777292 (1996). We overlap and expand US Patent as in the volume
of invention formulae as in the quantity of patenting countries.
Our patent is the second one acting in the world after the patent US Patent 5777292 (1996). We overlap and expand US Patent as in the volume of invention formulae as in the quantity of patenting countries.
The discovery of the new mechanism of hot superconductivity allows to create not only integrated circuits, but also cable communication lines, not limited in length, lost-free, having a band up to 350 GHz, that is commensurable with the best optical fiber communication lines. Such cables do not require the direct and back transformation of an electrical signal into light, as in optical fiber communication lines.
In the field of power engineering the hot superconductors should result to a technological revolution. On their basis it is possible to create power cables and wires with density of a current up to 34000 amper per centimeter squared, which will replace air electricity supply lines, wires of transformers, super-power electrogenerators and electromotors.
Also, the hot superconductors allow solving the problem of creation of powerful inexpensive compact engines / generators without liquid cooling. Such engines can directly be built in wheels of electric cars and combined cars. It will allow refusing from use of constant magnets based on rare earth elements in electric motors. It is the lack of rare earths in a nature that brakes transition of motor industry on combined and electric cars.
It is possible to make powerful magnets with a critical field up to 12.5 Òl from hot superconductors for transport on magnetic suspension, magnetic bearings, medical tomography. Besides, it is possible to use superconductive coils for accumulation of energy with specific capacity till 0.06 MJ/litre. It is close to parameters of leaden accumulators. The inductive accumulators on hot superconductors will much more effective than electrolytic ones by dynamic characteristics and have no restrictions in amount of cycles in the charge/discharge category. In result it will be possible completely to replace electrolytic accumulators in cars and electric cars with environmentally safe and eternal inductive accumulators.
Markets for "hot" superconducting products have a forecast growth rate of seven times those projected for refrigerated superconductors.
At sufficient financing first nanotransistors on hot superconductors we plan to let out in 2003. The first power cable for every possible applications - in 2004.
The hot superconductors are from out more than 12 years scientific researches of "Atomic and Molecular Engineering Laboratory", transformed 5 years back in Consulting Center "Nanobiology"
Dr. Alexander M. Ilyanok, Director AMEL